The Effects of Stress, Social Support, Experience of Shame, and Loss of Face on Mental Health of Chinese Immigrant Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities in Canada
Effects of Stress, Social Support, Experience of Shame, Loss of Face and Mental Health on Chinese Immigrant Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities in Canada
Keywords:Chinese Immigrant Mothers, Developmental disabilities, Stress, Social support, Shame, Depression
Social factors such as stress and social support impact mental health and might be associated with cultural factors such as feelings of shame and loss of face. Methods: This quantitative study examined sixty-five Chinese immigrant mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DDs) from the Great Toronto Area in Canada. Data was gathered through the following scales: Parental Stress Index-short Form, Oslo Social Support scale, Experience of Shame Scale, Loss of Face Questionnaire, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale, and General Self-efficacy Scale. Findings: Correlational analyses confirmed that shame was positively correlated significantly with loss of face (r=.43**), social anxiety (r=.62**), social phobia (r=.38**), and depression (r=.66**). Social support was negatively correlated significantly with depression (r=-.28**), self-efficacy was negatively correlated with social phobia (r=-.21**). Loss of face was positively correlated significantly with anxiety (r=.36**) and depression (r=.43**). Regression analyses indicated that shame (Z= 4.44***) and loss of face (Z= 2.36*) were the strongest mediators of effects of anxiety on mothers’ depression. Discussion: Implications are discussed with regard to providing efficient services for the families with their specific cultural backgrounds and optimizing their mental health and well-being. Conclusions: These empirical findings confirmed that Chinese immigrant mothers of children with DDs experienced more depression, when they had more feelings of shame, loss of face, and anxieties. This study highlighted the impact of social and cultural factors on the mental health of Chinese immigrant mothers of children with DDs.
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